Hypersensitivity caused by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen) resulting in a marked increase in reactivity to that antigen on subsequent exposure, sometimes resulting in harmful immunologic consequences. A number of different allergens are responsible for allergic reactions. The most common include:
Anxiety is a natural human reaction to stressful situations, but becomes a condition when it frequently occurs without a trigger.
It reflects a combination of biochemical changes in the body, the patient’s personal history and memory, and the social situation. It is important to know the difference between normal feelings of anxiety and an anxiety disorder that requires medical attention.
Asthma is a chronic (long-lasting) inflammatory disease of the airways. In those susceptible to asthma, this inflammation causes the airways to spasm and swell periodically so that the airways narrow. The individual then must wheeze or gasp for air. Obstruction to air flow either resolves spontaneously or responds to a wide range of treatments, but continuing inflammation makes the airways hyper-responsive to stimuli such as:
• Cold air
• Dust mites
• Pollutants in the air
• Even stress and anxiety
Pain felt in or along the spine or musculature of the posterior thorax. It is usually characterized by dull, continuous pain and tenderness in the muscles or their attachments in the lower lumbar, lumbosacral, or sacroiliac regions. Back pain is often referred to the leg or legs, following the distribution of the sciatic nerve.
A mental state of altered mood characterized by feelings of sadness, despair, and discouragement; distinguished from grief, which is realistic and proportionate to a personal loss. Profound depression may be an illness itself, such as or it may be symptomatic of another psychiatric disorder, such as schizophrenia.
An acute infectious respiratory disease, caused by Influenza viruses, which are in the family Orthomyxoviridae, in which the inhaled virus attacks the respiratory epithelial cells of those susceptible and produces a catarrhal inflammation; characterized by sudden onset, chills, fever of short duration (3-4 days), severe prostration, headache, muscle aches, and a cough that usually is dry and may be followed by secondary bacterial infections that can last up to 10 days.
The disease commonly occurs in epidemics, sometimes in pandemics, which develop quickly and spread rapidly; the mortality rate is usually low, but may arise in patients with secondary bacterial pneumonia, particularly in old people and those with underlying debilitating diseases; strain-specific immunity develops, but mutations in the virus are frequent, and such immunity usually does not affect antigenic-ally different strains.
Gastritis commonly refers to inflammation of the lining of the stomach, but the term is often used to cover a variety of symptoms resulting from stomach lining inflammation and symptoms of burning or discomfort. True gastritis comes in several forms and is diagnosed using a combination of tests.
There are several types of hepatitis, each with its own symptoms, treatment, and outcome. The disease types are known as hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. Types A, B and C are the most common in the United States. Only people who already have hepatitis B can get type D.
To be sure you have hepatitis, you need to be tested.
Previously endemic throughout much of the developing world, viral hepatitis now ranks as a major public health problem in industrialized nations. The three most common types of viral hepatitis (A, B, and C) afflict millions worldwide. Acute viral hepatitis is characterized by varying degrees of fever, malaise, weakness, anorexia, nausea, and abdominal distress.
Diet is important, but alone will not lower cholesterol. It has to be combined with weight loss and exercise.
Men’s health is concerned with identifying, preventing, and treating conditions that are most common or specific to men. Men live on average seven years less than women; life expectancy in the United States is 72 years for men and 79 years for women. The reasons for this discrepancy are not completely understood. Men may have some genetic predisposition for lower life expectancy, as women tend to outlive men in most areas throughout the world. But men also have different lifestyle patterns that increase the wear and tear on their bodies.
Studies have shown that men tend to drink and smoke more than women, men obtain medical care less frequently than women, and men generally have more stressful habits. It is clear to health professionals that men can benefit from increased knowledge of male medical issues and by understanding how lifestyle choices impact health.
Of, in, near, or relating to the pelvis: for example, a pelvic artery.
If you have pain below your belly button and above your legs, it counts as pelvic pain. It can be caused by a lot of things. It may be a harmless sign that you’re fertile, a digestive disorder, or a red flag that you need to go to the hospital.
Pneumonia is an infection of the lung that can be caused by nearly any class of organism known to cause human infections. These include bacteria, amoebae, viruses, fungi, and parasites. In the United States, pneumonia is the sixth most common disease leading to ; 2 million Americans develop pneumonia each year, and 40,000-70,000 die from it.
Anyone can get this lung infection. But infants younger than age 2 and people over age 65 have the highest odds. That’s because their immune systems might not be strong enough to fight it.
Refers to an inflammation of the sinuses, air spaces within the bones of the face. Sinusitis is most often due to an infection within these spaces.
Conditions that can cause sinus blockage include:
• The common cold
• Allergic rhinitis, which is swelling of the lining of the nose
• Small growths in the lining of the nose called nasal polyps
• A deviated septum, which is a shift in the nasal cavity
Tetanus is a rare but often fatal disease that affects the central nervous system by causing painful muscular contractions. It begins when tetanus bacteria enter the body, usually through a wound or cut exposed to contaminated soil. Tetanus is easily preventable through.
Pertaining to blood vessels or indicative of a copious blood supply. Of, characterized by, or containing cells or vessels that carry or circulate fluids, such as blood, lymph, or sap, through the body of a human being.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or , refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue. Weight loss can either occur unintentionally due to malnourishment or an underlying disease or arise from a conscious effort to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state.
Women’s health is the effect of gender on disease and health that encompasses a broad range of biological and psycho-social issues. Women’s health is the concept that examines gender differences in health and disease states. The average life expectancy has almost doubled for women (79 years for women and 73 years for men), when compared with averages during the turn of the century. During different phases of a women’s life cycle there are complex interactions that exist between sex hormones,physiological changes, and emotional issues. Physiological changes occur as early as embryonic development when hormones program structural differences between male and female brains. During reproductive years, sex hormones profoundly influence reproduction and development, which creates a spectrum of gender specific health issues. With advancing age and onset of menopause, women’s risk factors for disease is comparably similar to men’s. Although the same disease may affect women as men, it is thought that biological mechanisms and psycho-social differences influence the clinical course of the disease (natural history) differently in women. The number of women working has doubled within the past 50 years. The effect of work stress, new environmental exposures and multiple roles is expected to have health and social impact.
The leading causes of death among women are cardiovascular disease, malignant cancer, cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung disease, pneumonia/influenza, and diabetes. Additionally, women can be prone to osteoporosis, alcohol abuse, psychological disorders, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and violence.